Arab League

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African and Asian nations that speak Arabic make up the Arab League. To further the independence, sovereignty, concerns, and interests of its member nations and observers, it was established in Cairo in 1945. The organization had seven original members when it first started, and it now has 22 different member countries as well as four observer governments. The League has a council in place to make sure that its objectives are achieved, and it is governed by a charter.

KEY LESSONS
  • The Middle East and North African nations that speak Arabic collectively under the banner of the Arab League.
  • The League’s headquarters are in Cairo, where it was founded in 1945.
  • The goal of the Arab league is to advance regional sovereignty, economic development, and political stability.
  • There are 22 member states and 4 observer countries in the League.
  • The Arab League’s charter, which consists of 20 articles and 3 annex agreements, is followed by its members.
Knowledge of the Arab League

As was already mentioned, the Arab League is an association of 22 countries from the Middle East and Northern Africa. These nations are largely found in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Its headquarters are in Cairo, and it was established in 1945. It is formally known as the League of Arab States and prioritizes the peace, stability, and political, social, and economic growth of its member states.

History of the Arab League

After the seven founding members of the League signed the Alexandria Protocol in Cairo the year before, the League was established in 1945. Freeing the Arab nations still under to colonial authority was a hot topic at the time.

The League’s initial headquarters were located in Cairo in 1945. When it was moved to Tunis, Tunisia, in 1979, that situation altered. Egypt’s membership was terminated by the group when it forged a peace accord with Israel. When Egypt was re-admitted as a member state in 1989, the League restored relations with Egypt and relocated its headquarters back to Cairo.

During the Arab Spring uprisings in early 2011, the Arab League replied swiftly and unanimously by suspending the nation’s membership. It backed UN intervention against Muammar Gaddafi’s forces at the time. Later that year, after Gaddafi was removed from office and a representative of the National Transitional Council was put in place to serve as the interim government, Libya was allowed to rejoin the organization.

In 2014, the Arab League denounced the Islamic State, and some of its members carried out airstrikes against the terrorist group. But overall, it didn’t do much to help the Iraqi government, which is headed by Shiites. Syria’s membership was also in jeopardy as the League decided to revoke it in 2011 due to government violence against peaceful protests. The organization urged Turkey to leave Syria in 2018 and 2019.

The League requested that Somalia postpone its presidential and legislative elections in April 2021.

Charter of the Arab League

The Pact of the League of Arab States is the name of the charter of the Arab League, which was founded on March 22, 1945. The seven founding members’ heads of state: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen signed it. According to the pact, the member states want to bolster their sovereignty and relationships.

The pact’s 20 articles set down the objectives, structure, location, and formation of the Arab League Council. It also outlines the steps that must be taken to settle member disputes.

Additionally, there are annexes covering the following topics:

  • Palestine
  • The collaboration with other Arab non-member nations
  • the selection of a secretary general for the league
Council of the Arab League

The Arab League’s highest body, the League Council, is made up of delegates from each member nation, usually the foreign ministers, permanent delegates, or their proxies. There is one vote per member state.

Twice a year, in March and September, the Council convenes. A special session may be requested by two or more members.

The secretary-general is in charge of the general secretariat, which oversees the league’s everyday activities. The general secretariat serves as the league’s administrative body as well as the council’s executive and specialized ministerial councils.

Arab League Member Conflicts

Disputes among member states have impeded the Arab League’s functioning and influence. Some members supported the Soviet Union during the Cold War while others sided with Western countries. Rivalry over the leadership of the League has also existed, particularly between Egypt and Iraq.

Conflicts between monarchs, including Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Morocco, as well as the actions of nations that have undergone political upheaval, including Egypt under Gamal Abdel Nasser and Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, have caused unrest. Significant rifts between Arab League members were also caused by the American war on Saddam Hussein’s Iraq.

The Council’s members do not need to unanimously ratify its resolutions. However, because no country must comply by them against its will because they are only binding on the countries that voted for them, their impact is relatively restricted and they sometimes amount to little more than pronouncements rather than actual policies.

Purpose of the Arab League

The stated goal of the Arab League is to develop relations, facilitate communication, and advance common interests among Arabic-speaking countries. These issues of interest include economy, communication, culture, nationality, social welfare, and health.

The League of Arab States’ founding charter, the Pact of the League of Arab States, outlines the organization’s goals as follows:

In order to realize close cooperation between member states, to protect their independence and sovereignty, and to take into account the general affairs and interests of the Arab countries, the League’s purpose is to “bring closer relations between member States and coordinate their political activities.”

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