Classification of Directive Principles of State Policy

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There is no division of Directive Principles in the Constitution. However, they can be divided into three major kinds based on their substance and outlook, namely socialistic, Gandhian, and liberal-intellectual.

Socialistic values

These beliefs are a reflection of socialism’s philosophy. They provide the foundation for a democratic socialist state, pursue social and economic fairness, and chart the course for a welfare state. They command the state to:

  1. To ensure that there is social order that is characterized by social, economic, and political fairness and to reduce income, status, opportunity, and facility inequalities (Article 38).
  2. To guarantee
    • the right to an adequate standard of living for all citizens;
    • the equitable distribution of community resources for the common good;
    • the prevention of wealth and production-related concentration;
    • equal pay for equal work for men and women;
    • the protection of workers’ health and strength from forcible abuse; and
    • opportunities for children’s healthy development (Article 39).
  3. To advance equal justice and offer the poor free legal assistance (Article 39 A).
  4. To ensure that everyone has the right to work, an education, and public aid in the event of unemployment, old age, illness, or disability (Article 41).
  5. To provide for fair and humane working conditions and maternity leave (Article 42).
  6. To provide all workers a livable wage, a respectable level of living, and access to social and cultural opportunities (Article 43).
  7. To ensure that employees are involved in the administration of industries (Article 43 A);.
  8. To elevate people’s standards of living and nutrition;. To enhance public health (Article 47).

Gandhian Principles

These beliefs are grounded in Gandhian philosophy. They stand in for Gandhi’s reconstruction plan put forward during the national movement. Some of Gandhi’s concepts were incorporated as Directive Principles in order to realize his dreams. They demand of the State:

  1. Establishing village panchayats and giving them the requisite authority and powers to function as self-governing bodies (Article 40).
  2. To individually or jointly encourage cottage industry in rural regions (Article 43).
  3. To encourage cooperative societies’8a voluntary formation, autonomous operation, democratic oversight, and professional administration (Article 43B).
  4. To safeguard SCs, STs, and other weaker groups of the society from social injustice and exploitation and to advance their economic and educational interests (Article 46).
  5. To outlaw the use of narcotics and alcoholic beverages that are harmful to one’s health (Article 47).
  6. To forbid the killing of cows, calves, and other dairy and draught animals, as well as to enhance their breeds (Article 48).

Intellectually Liberal Principles

The values included in this category represent liberalism’s ideology. They command the state to:

  1. To ensure that all citizens have access to a unified civil code across the nation (Article 44).
  2. To ensure that all children receive early childhood care and education up until the age of six (Article 45).
  3. Modernizing and scientifically organizing agriculture and animal husbandry (Article 48).
  4. To maintain woods and wildlife, develop the environment, and protect it (Article 48 A).
  5. To preserve landmarks, locations, and historic or artistically significant items that have been designated as being of national significance (Article 49).
  6. To separate the executive branch of government from the judicial branch (Article 50).
  7. To encourage the use of arbitration (Article 51) as a means of resolving international disputes, to enhance respect for international law and treaty obligations, and to ensure just and honorable relations between nations.

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