Closure Motions


Definition and Function

A closure motion, also known as just “closure,” is a parliamentary maneuver used to conclude a discussion and go on to a vote on an issue. A closure motion’s main goal is to speed up legislative work and avoid unnecessarily holding up the legislative process. Closure gestures are often used when a discussion has dragged on and a quick decision is desired.

Closure motions accomplish the following major goals

  1. Efficiency: Closure motions aid in the smooth progress of parliamentary procedures. They avoid superfluous discussion stalling and filibustering.
  2. Decision-Making: Closure permits the legislative body to decide on a particular problem or piece of legislation, avoiding protracted delays.
  3. Majority Rule: By allowing a majority vote to decide the outcome of a discussion, closure motions support the idea of majority rule.
  4. Time management: They are necessary for scheduling the legislative session’s agenda and allotting time to deal with various topics.

Procedures and Types

Closure motions can take a variety of forms depending on the legislative system in use, but they all include the following elements:

  1. Notice Requirement: A closure motion cannot be introduced without prior notice in many legislative systems. Members may receive different amounts of notice, giving them time to plan and anticipate the motion.
  2. Majority Support: Closure motions normally require a majority vote to be approved. Depending on parliamentary regulations, the precise threshold may change, such as a simple majority or a higher percentage.
  3. Closure Debate: Before the move for closure is put to a vote, there may be a brief discussion to give members a chance to voice their opinions on whether the debate should be concluded or not. Usually, this discussion has a time limit.

Closure motions come in a variety of forms, each of which is designed to handle a particular situation:

  1. Debate Closure: With this form of motion, the discussion of a particular subject or piece of legislation is brought to a close. Once the motion has been approved, the members cast their votes on the current issue.
  2. Guillotine move: In certain parliamentary systems, a move to adjourn is referred to as a “guillotine motion” if it strictly limits the amount of time that can be spent debating a particular issue. The discussion automatically ends and a vote is conducted when the specified time has passed.

Difficulties and Controversies

Closure motions are crucial tools for parliamentary effectiveness, although they are not without difficulties and controversies:

  1. Limiting Debate: Critics claim that closure motions may restrict members’ ability to properly discuss and reflect on significant matters. They argue that hurrying a vote could lead to rash choices.
  2. Majority Rule vs. Minority Rights: Closure motions respect the idea of majority rule, but they may disregard the rights of the minority to participate in substantive discussion and deliberation.
  3. Misuse or Abuse: Some members may utilize closure motions improperly or abusively to limit discussion of topics that demand careful examination. Allegations of procedural manipulation may result from this.
  4. Subjectivity: Because the decision to employ a closure motion can be arbitrary, there may be debates over whether a debate is actually impeding progress or whether it is being rushed through for political reasons.

Examples from various nations

Various parliamentary systems across the world use closure motions:

  1. United Kingdom: closing motions are also referred to as “closure of debate” motions in the UK Parliament. They end discussion on a certain topic and force a vote by requiring a two-thirds majority to pass.
  2. Australia: In the Australian Parliament, “closure motions” are also known as “gag motions.” They can be applied to impose discussion time limitations or restrict debate to a certain topic. A simple majority is required to approve these motions.
  3. India: Closure motions are used in the Indian Parliament to adjourn discussions in the Lok Sabha (House of the People). A majority vote must be taken on a move for adjournment that has the backing of at least 50 members.


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