Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)


The Convention on Biological variety (CBD) is a piece of international legislation that aims to “conserve biological diversity, ensure that its constituent parts are used sustainably, and ensure that the benefits from the use of genetic resources are fairly and equitably shared by all parties.”

What is the role of CBD?

The Convention was made available for signature during the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit on June 5, 1992, and it became effective on December 29, 1993. It was designed as a useful instrument for putting Agenda 21’s ideals into practice, with three key goals:

  • Maintenance of biological diversity
  • The responsible use of biological diversity’s constituent parts
  • The equal and fair distribution of the advantages brought about by the use of genetic resources
Main Goals of CBD

The CBD’s main goal is to promote behaviors that will result in a sustainable future. It spans all conceivable fields, from science, politics, and education to agriculture, commerce, and culture, among others, that are directly or indirectly related to biodiversity and its significance for sustainable development.
The Conference of the Parties (COP) is in charge of overseeing the CBD. The 196 ratifying countries’ supreme body meets every two years to assess progress, establish goals, and agree on work plans.

Nagoya Protocol

The fair and equitable distribution of benefits resulting from the use of genetic resources is one of the three goals of the CBD, and the Nagoya Protocol offers a clear legal framework for its efficient implementation.

Cartagena Protocol

The transport of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from contemporary biotechnology from one nation to another is regulated under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.

In 2010, the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 was adopted. There are 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets included. These international goals, which have a 2020 deadline, concentrate on the various steps and results required to move society toward the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity: coexisting peacefully with nature.

CBD and Water
  • The livelihoods of communities who depend on freshwater and wetland ecosystems for these activities and services, as well as the security of people’s access to food and water, are greatly impacted.
  • An important step toward the 2050 Vision of “Living in harmony with nature” will be the adoption of a post-2020 global biodiversity framework by the CBD COP at its fifteenth meeting.
CBD and Human Rights

The COP has also begun work on important topics that cut over all subject areas and correspond to the problems addressed in the substantive provisions of Articles 6–20 of the Convention, such as, for instance, gender and health as well as peace.

It is also suggested that efforts to solve intersecting issues that address human rights concerns serve as a roadmap for biodiversity action in the years following 2020. The CBD and its Protocols generally acknowledge the contributions of local communities and indigenous peoples as well as their knowledge, ideas, and practices.

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD)

The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 officially launched the multinational treaty known as the Biodiversity Convention, also known as the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. It is a significant piece of writing on sustainable development. It is a part of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP).

  • The CBD has 196 nations as parties.
  • India is a member of the Convention as well. In 1994, India ratified it.
  • The Biological Diversity Act of 2002 was passed in order to implement the Convention’s provisions.
  • The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), which was established by the government in 2003, is responsible for carrying out the Act’s provisions. The NBA is a governmental entity.
  • The parties who sign the convention are bound by it legally.
  • The convention is governed by the Conference of Parties (COP). The nations that have ratified the pact make up this group.
  • Canada’s Montreal is home to its Secretariat.
  • The Vatican and the United States are the only two UN members that are not parties to the CBD.
  • In the 1992 Earth Summit, two landmark binding agreements were signed, one of them being the UNCBD. The other one was the Convention on Climate Change.
  • More than 150 countries signed the document at the Summit, and since then, over 175 nations have ratified the agreement.
Goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity

The following is a list of the Convention’s objectives:

  • Preservation of Biodiversity
  • Sustainable use of biodiversity’s components
  • Fair and equal distribution of benefits from genetic resources



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