Cost-Push Inflation


Cost-push inflation is the form of inflation caused by substantial increments in the cost of the factors of production like raw materials, labor, factory rent, etc. One cannot alter it, as this has no appropriate alternative and ultimately leads to a decrease in the supply of these inputs. It is also known as wage-push inflation.The hike in production costs like wages or the cost of raw materials results in increased prices for consumers regardless of the demand for the product or service. The effect on real GDP leads organizations to fire a part of their workforce to cope with the hike in price and deterioration in demand, which are a part of its effects.

Causes of Cost-Push Inflation

Several variables can contribute to cost-push inflation, such as:

  1. Rising Labor Costs: Wages and salaries constitute a significant portion of production costs. If workers demand higher wages to keep up with rising costs of living or due to the strength of labor unions, businesses may pass these increased costs on to consumers in the form of higher prices.
  2. Increasing Raw Material Prices: Fluctuations in commodity prices can have a substantial effect on production costs. When the costs of basic materials, such as oil, metals, and agricultural goods, increase, businesses may increase prices to maintain profitability.
  3. Supply Chain Disruptions: Supply chain disruptions, whether caused by natural disasters, geopolitical tensions, or logistical difficulties, can result in shortages of critical inputs and higher production costs.
  4. Government Regulations and Taxes: The imposition of new taxes, tariffs, or regulatory burdens can contribute to cost increases for businesses and price increases.
  5. Exchange Rate Fluctuations: For import-dependent economies, a depreciation of the domestic currency can result in higher import prices, which may be passed on to consumers.
Consequences of Cost-Push Inflation

Cost-push inflation can have the following negative effects on an economy:

  1. Decreased Purchasing Power: As prices rise, consumers’ purchasing power decreases, resulting in a fall in real income. This can result in decreased consumption and slower economic expansion.
  2. Erosion of Savings: People with fixed incomes and savings may find it difficult to keep up with the rising cost of living, causing their savings to lose value.
  3. Impact on Businesses: Companies may find it difficult to maintain profitability in the face of rising production costs, resulting in reduced investments, cutbacks, and even closures.
  4. Interest Rates and Monetary Policy: Central banks may raise interest rates in response to cost-push inflation in order to reduce expenditure and control inflation. However, this can also affect interest rates and the economy as a whole.
  5. Unemployment: In extreme circumstances, businesses coping with higher costs may resort to cutbacks, resulting in a rise in unemployment rates.
Managing Cost-Push Inflation

To mitigate the effects of cost-push inflation, policymakers may take into account the following measures:

  1. Supply-Side Policies: Governments can implement supply-side policies that promote production efficiency and productivity, such as investing in infrastructure, supporting research and development, and reducing regulatory burdens.
  2. Wage and Price Controls: Some governments may implement wage and price controls to combat inflation. Nevertheless, these measures may have unintended effects and distort market mechanisms.
  3. Diversification of imports: Reducing the economy’s reliance on a few important imports can protect it from sudden price fluctuations in specific commodities.
  4. Managing Exchange Rates: In countries susceptible to fluctuations in exchange rates, employing measures to stabilize the currency can mitigate import-related cost-push inflation.
  5. Long-Term Fiscal and Monetary Measures: Prudent fiscal and monetary policies can produce a stable economic climate that is less susceptible to inflationary pressures.

Cost-push inflation is a significant economic challenge resulting from rising production costs that affect both businesses and consumers. By understanding its causes, effects, and potential remedies, policymakers can develop effective strategies to manage and mitigate the effects of cost-push inflation, thereby promoting stable economic growth and ensuring the welfare of their constituents.


  1. […] Cost-Push Inflation: Cost-push inflation happens when firms increase their production costs for goods and services and then pass those higher costs on to customers in the form of higher pricing. Rising wages, higher costs for raw materials, higher taxes, and more regulations are some factors that might cause cost-push inflation. […]


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