Group of Four (G4 Nations)


Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan are the four nations that make up the G4 and are working toward UNSC permanent membership. The G4 nations are supporting one another’s applications for UNSC permanent membership. The G4 countries often get together after the yearly high-level UN General Assembly session.

Important G-4 Meeting Highlights
  • They believed that immediate reform of the UN’s decision-making bodies was required due to the interdependence and complexity of the world’s concerns.
  • They reaffirmed their shared commitment to work toward text-based agreements that result in Reformed Multilateralism as well.
  • They emphasized that the General Assembly lacked openness and failed to make “meaningful progress” in the Inter-Governmental Negotiations (IGN).
  • They reaffirmed their support for permanent and temporary representation of African nations.
  • The Ministers agreed that in order to increase the Council’s capacity to effectively address the complex and changing issues related to international peace and security, developing nations and significant donors to the UN must play a greater role and be more present.
Need for UNSC Reforms

Ironically, the UN only has 5 permanent members despite representing a much bigger world. The Security Council’s current membership reflects post-World War II realities and is therefore out of step with the shifting global power dynamics.
Big powers were granted privileges when the UNSC was first established in order to include them on the council. This was essential for both the organization’s smooth operation and to prevent collapse similar to that of the League of Nations. Africa, South America, and Far Eastern Asia are not represented in the council’s permanent membership.

Why does India want a permanent seat on the UN Security Council?


India never requested permanent membership in the UN Security Council throughout the first 40 years of its existence.
Even in 1993, when India sent the UN a written proposal in response to a resolution on reforms passed by the General Assembly, it did not make clear that it wanted permanent membership for itself.

India has only begun to request permanent participation in the council in the recent several years.
Given the magnitude of its economy, population, and status as the world’s largest democracy, India deserves a permanent seat on the council:

  • India has grown to be a significant role not just in Asia but also globally.
  • If India were a permanent member of the Security Council, it would be a more representative body.


The ability to veto measures immense power.

  • India has been attempting to classify Masood Azhar as a global terrorist since 2009. China’s veto authority kept causing delays.

India will be able to advance its interests more effectively.

  • The USSR actually began to boycott the UNSC at one point, and it was during that time that the US was able to pass a resolution ending the Korean War. From that point on, the USSR understood it was pointless to boycott the UN. If any resolution is against them, it must maintain its veto power.

Being a permanent member will acknowledge India’s emergence as a major global player, ready to contribute significantly to the goals of the Security Council for global peace and security.

India will be able to take advantage of the ‘prestige’ that comes with being a permanent member of the council.

What does the UN Security Council (UNSC) do?

The Security Council, which was established by the United Nations charter in 1945, is primarily in charge of preserving world peace and security.
The Security Council consists of 15 people.

  • The United States, the Russian Federation, France, China, and the United Kingdom are the five permanent members.
  • The Security Council’s non-permanent members are chosen for two-year terms.

Each Security Council member gets one vote. The Security Council makes decisions by a majority vote of nine members, including the permanent members who concur in the decision. The resolution cannot be passed if one of the five permanent members votes “No”.

Any UN member who is not a member of the Security Council is permitted to take part in discussions without having a vote whenever the Security Council determines that the member’s interests are particularly impacted.

Intergovernmental Negotiations (IGN)

IGN is a group of nation-states working within the UN to continue the UN Security Council’s (UNSC) reform.

The IGN is made up of a variety of international organizations, including:


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