Maoism is a form of communism developed by Mao Tse Tung. Combining armed insurgency, mass mobilization, and strategic alliances, this doctrine seeks to seize state power. Maoists also employ propaganda and disinformation directed against State institutions as additional elements according to their insurgency doctrine. Mao referred to this as the “Protracted Peoples Movement”. The term ‘War’, where the emphasis is on ‘military line’ to capture authority, is a military term.

What is Central theme of Maoist ideology?

The central tenet of Maoist ideology is the use of violence and armed insurrection to seize control of the government. According to the Maoist insurgency doctrine, carrying armaments is not negotiable. The maoist philosophy glorifies violence and ‘Peoples Liberation Guerrilla Army’ (PLGA) cadres are explicitly trained in the most horrific forms of violence to inspire fear in others population subject to their dominance. However, they also employ deception mobilizing individuals over alleged deficiencies in the existing system system, in order to indoctrinate them to resort to violence as the only means of recourse.

About the Indian Maoist:

The largest and the most violent Maoist formation in India is the Communist Party of India (Maoist). The CPI (Maoist) is an amalgamation of many splinter groups, which culminated in the merger of two largest Maoist groups in 2004; the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), People War and the Maoist Communist Centre of India. The CPI (Maoist) and all its front organizations formations have been included in the list of banned terrorist organizations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

Why do Maoists murder innocent civilians?

Maoists murder civilians for a diversity of motives. First, they murder those who do not adhere to their ideology in regions under their control; these individuals are typically labeled as “police informers.” They also murder individuals to create a power and governance vacuum in rural areas, which is then filled by terrorist organizations them. In addition, they eliminate the so-called “class enemies.” All of these murders result in a Circumstances enabling the relatives of victims to potentially rebel.. I. This results in subsequent murders of such targets. Lastly, it reaches a point where the ‘power to murder’ in their spheres of influence becomes a reality. The only motivation for the lower and less ‘politically conscious’ cadres to murder is for personal gain. People who have done nothing wrong.

Why they attack schools and other economic infrastructure?

The Maoists wish to keep the population in their strongholds cut-off from the mainstream milieu. The schools are attacked because education promotes a spirit of enquiry among the local population and also equips children with skills for alternative sources of livelihood. These developments are looked upon by the Maoists as potential threats to their very existence and their outdated ideology. The Maoists also destroy infrastructure like roads and telecom network to keep populations isolated from mainstream India.

Key Principles of Maoism

As a political ideology, Maoism is guided by a number of guiding principles that govern its actions and strategies:

  • Peasant Uprising: Maoism highlights the significance of peasantry as a revolutionary force. It promotes land redistribution and agrarian reforms in order to empower rural impoverished communities.
  • Protracted People’s War: Maoists believe in waging a protracted, guerrilla-style war that progressively undermines the state and obtains the support of the people. This strategy includes hit-and-run tactics, the establishment of base areas, and parallel governance structures.
  • Mass Line: According to the “mass line” theory, communist leadership and the populace interact closely. It emphasizes the need to comprehend and resolve the people’s concerns in order to obtain their trust and support.
  • Cultural Revolution: Maoism promotes cultural revolution as a means of challenging entrenched power structures, including those within the Communist Party.

Major Maoist Organizations in India

Several Maoist organizations are active in India, but only a few have played a significant role in the movement:

  • Communist Party of India (Maoist): Formed in 2004 by the merger of multiple Maoist factions, this is India’s most prominent Maoist organization. It operates in multiple jurisdictions with the goal of establishing a “people’s democratic state.”
  • People’s Liberation Guerrilla Army (PLGA): As the CPI(Maoist)’s military branch, the PLGA is responsible for conducting armed operations against the government and security forces.
  • Naxalites: The term “Naxalite” is frequently applied to Maoist insurgents in India, particularly in the states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh. The appellation originates from the late 1960s Naxalbari uprising in West Bengal.
  • Maoist Communist Centre (MCC): Even though it merged with the CPI(Maoist) in 2004, the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) was a prominent Maoist organization in eastern India. The movement is still influenced by its legacy.

Maoist Methodologies and Actions

In order to achieve their goals, Maoist organizations in India employ a variety of strategies and engage in numerous activities.

  • Armed Conflict: To establish their dominance over certain regions, Maoists engage in armed confrontations with security forces. They frequently target police stations, government buildings, and economic assets.
  • Land Redistribution: The demand for land redistribution is one of the central tenets of Maoism. Maoist groups frequently seize land from landlords and redistribute it to peasants without land.
  • Parallel Governance: In areas under their control, Maoist groups establish parallel structures of governance, supplying essential services and administering justice. This assists them in gaining the support and confidence of local communities.
  • Recruitment and Propaganda: Maoist organizations actively recruit new members, including disillusioned youth and marginalized individuals. They employ propaganda to disseminate their ideology and elicit support from the public.

The effect of Maoism on India

The presence of Maoist insurgency in India has had both positive and negative repercussions:

  • Socio-economic Impact: In some regions, Maoist activities have resulted in the redistribution of land and enhanced the socioeconomic conditions of marginalized communities.
  • Security Challenges: Maoist insurgency has presented the Indian government with a significant security challenge. The counterinsurgency operations conducted by security forces have resulted in casualties on both parties.
  • Concerns Regarding Human Rights: The conflict has raised concerns regarding human rights violations committed by both Maoist groups and security forces. Frequently, civilians are ensnared in the crossfire.
  • Development Hindrance: As a result of the ongoing conflict, Maoist-affected regions frequently languish behind in terms of economic growth and infrastructure development.
  • Political Impact: The presence of Maoist groups has influenced the political discourse in India, prompting some parties to address land, poverty, and social justice issues with greater initiative.
  • National Security: The Indian government regards Maoism as a significant threat to national security, resulting in the allocation of more military and financial resources to combat it.

In India, Maoism is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon that has evolved over many decades. It has spawned both armed insurgency and grassroots movements. Some argue that it has empowered marginalized communities, but it has also created significant security issues and impeded development in affected regions. The conflict continues to influence India’s political and social landscape, making it a subject of ongoing concern and discussion. Resolving the Maoist issue necessitates a multifaceted strategy that addresses both the problem’s fundamental causes and its security dimension.


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