President’s Rule


The imposition of Article 356 of the Indian Constitution, commonly known as President’s Rule, is a provision that enables the President of India to take on a more direct role in the administration of a state when the constitutional machinery inside that state has failed or is perceived to have failed. It is an important component of India’s federal system and is used only under extraordinary situations. Here, we’ll give a general explanation of the President’s Rule, along with some examples of how it might be used.

President’s Rule’s Requirements

According to Article 356 of the Indian Constitution, President’s Rule is implemented in a state under particular circumstances. These circumstances include:

  1. Governor’s Report: The process starts with a report from the governor of the affected state to the president, informing him or her that the state government is no longer operating or that there is a constitutional crisis.
  2. Ministerial Council Loss of Majority: If the state’s Council of Ministers, which is led by the Chief Minister, loses the support of the majority of the state legislative assembly and refuses to resign, President’s Rule may be enacted.
  3. Failure to Follow Directions: President’s Rule may be enacted if the state government disobeys orders given by the federal government in accordance with Article 365. These orders may be related to issues with the state’s administration and the Constitution.
  4. Elections Postponed or Suspended: If the state’s scheduled elections are postponed or suspended for whatever reason, creating a constitutional void, the president may declare President’s Rule.
  5. Financial Emergency: President’s Rule may be implemented if the state is unable to pay its debts or if the President determines that there is a threat to the state’s credit or financial stability.
  6. Breakdown of Law and Order: President’s Rule may be enacted when there has been a serious loss of law and order and the state administration is unable to maintain order.

How to Apply the President’s Rule

President’s Rule is imposed in accordance with a set method to guarantee that it is not applied arbitrarily and upholds the Constitution‘s federal principles:

  1. Governor’s Report: The process starts with a report from the governor to the president outlining the circumstances that call for the installation of president’s rule, as was previously mentioned.
  2. Recommendation from the Union Cabinet: After reviewing the Governor’s report, the Union Cabinet advises the President whether or not to enact President’s Rule.
  3. President’s Discretion: Based on recommendations from the Union Cabinet, the President chooses whether to implement President’s Rule. Although the President’s role in this regard is mostly ceremonial, it is crucial to safeguard the democratic norms and the separation of powers.
  4. Dissolution of the State Legislative Assembly: Depending on how serious the situation is, once President’s Rule is implemented, the state legislative assembly is either dissolved or its operations are suspended.
  5. Governor’s Role: The Governor takes on a more active role in the management of the state during President’s Rule. The Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers normally carry out the duties that are undertaken by the Governor.
  6. Parliament’s Approval: The President’s Rule proclamation must be presented for approval to both houses of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha). President’s Rule is nullified if the proclamation is rejected by either house.

Effects of the President’s Rule

President’s Rule’s implementation has a considerable impact on the state’s governance and connection with the federal government:

  1. Suspension of Elected Government: The elected state government, including the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers, is suspended under President’s Rule. The Governor is granted executive authority.
  2. State Legislative Assembly: During President’s Rule, the state legislative assembly may be disbanded or maintained inactive depending on the circumstances.
  3. Direct authority by the Central Government: The central government exercises direct authority over all aspects of the state’s administration, including law and order, finances, and policy choices.
  4. Parliamentary Oversight: President’s Rule is subject to parliamentary approval, which guarantees that the decision is made seriously and in accordance with democratic ideals.
  5. Impact on Federalism: Because President’s Rule temporarily transfers authority from the states to the federal government, it has an effect on India’s federalism principles. It is intended to be a last-resort mechanism to deal with constitutional lapses.
  6. Citizens’ Rights: President’s Rule does not suspend a citizen’s fundamental rights while it is in effect. Constitutional protections are still available to citizens.
  7. Challenges to Governance: A sudden change in administration might cause the state’s governance system to malfunction, which would affect the provision of vital services.
  8. Political Implications: President’s Rule’s imposition frequently has political repercussions, with competing parties accusing one another of abusing it or opposing its imposition.

President’s Rule in India examples include

President’s Rule has been enacted over time in a number of Indian states and union territories, frequently as a result of political unrest, constitutional crises, or governmental failures. Several significant examples include:

  1. Jammu and Kashmir: In 2018, President’s Rule was implemented there after political unrest led to the dissolution of the state legislative assembly. Later, when a new government was elected, it was repealed.
  2. Uttarakhand: In the midst of a political crisis, President’s Rule was enacted in Uttarakhand in 2016. It was alleged that the state government lost its majority, resulting in a time when the federal government ruled.
  3. Arunachal Pradesh: President’s Rule was instituted in Arunachal Pradesh in 2016 as a result of a political crisis and claims of a constitutional crisis. It was later repealed as a result of a Supreme Court decision.
  4. Delhi: President’s Rule was enacted in the National Capital Territory of Delhi in 2014 following the Chief Minister’s departure. New elections were held in its wake, and a new administration was established.


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