Group of 77 (G77)

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The Group of 77 (G-77), a loose confederation of developing nations, was founded on June 15, 1964. The 77 initial signatories to the Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries at the end of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in Geneva are the source of the group’s name. The main objectives of the G-77 are to defend the economic interests of member nations by insisting on equal standing with developed nations in the global marketplace, to maintain the independence and sovereignty of all developing countries, to form a unified front on matters of shared concern, and to fortify ties among member nations. Despite the group’s expansion to include more than 130 countries, the moniker G-77 has been retained due to the meeting’s historical significance.

The 1967 Charter of Algiers, which established the G-77, stated the fundamental tenets of the organization. After that, the G-77 created an institutional framework that included an Intergovernmental Group of 24 in Washington, D.C., and five chapters with offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Paris, Rome, and Vienna. A chairperson is chosen from one of the chapters’ member nations on a rotational basis every year. The G-77’s highest decision-making body, the South Summit, meets every five years. Additionally, the Annual Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the G-77 takes place at the start of each regular session of the UN General Assembly.

Origin and Development

77 developing nations created the G-77 (Group of 77) on June 15, 1964. They were the initial signatories of the “Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries,” which was made public at the conclusion of UNCTAD‘s first session in Geneva.

The historic Charter of Algiers was publicly adopted at the G-77’s inaugural meeting in Algiers in 1967. The institutional framework of the G-77 took a more lasting shape after that. The coming years would see the creation of additional G-77 chapters. Here are some of them:

  • Italy (FAO)
  • Austria (UNIDO)
  • London (UNESCO)
  • Kenya (UNEP)
  • IMF and World Bank members of the G-24 in Washington, D.C.

Despite the G-77’s membership growing to 133 nations, the original name has been kept because of its historical significance.

Goals of the G-77

The G-77’s primary objectives are to preserve the interests of the developing world as a whole and to strengthen its negotiating skills in the larger UN system and other international forum. Fostering positive relationships among the developing nations at large through economic and technical collaboration is another goal.

Structure of the G-77

The primary decision-making body is the yearly gathering of foreign ministers from member nations.

In terms of membership, decision-making, and specific operating procedures, the various Chapters of the G-77 also share some characteristics. Each Chapter has a chairman who serves as the group’s spokesperson and oversees all activities done there. The chairmanship is held for a year in each of the Chapters and rotates among Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean.

Finance of G-77

In compliance with the pertinent First South Summit decisions, the Member States provide contributions to support the Group of 77’s activities.

Behavior of the G-77
  • At international conferences and other gatherings organized under the auspices of the UN dealing with international economic cooperation and development, the G-77 adopts joint declarations and agreements connected to specific topics as well as sponsor and negotiator resolutions and decisions.
  • The G-77’s early years displayed impressive policy cohesiveness and consensus. However, during the coming years, numerous conflicts amongst the group’s members started to surface. One of the contributing elements was the fact that many developing nations started to develop more quickly than other G-77 members. The members’ interest in the groupings decreased with the establishment of regional and sub-regional integration groupings with their own distinct agendas and the end of the Cold War.
  • As a result, there was a decrease in both the likelihood of collaboration among member countries and the collective thinking on the policies necessary to increase the economic might of developing countries. Members have recently resorted to merely criticizing the nations and organizations that are controlled by those who have the financial resources to do so.
  • For the first time in the conference, the issues that the Third World nations are confronting in the age of globalization were covered. Other topics covered included the impact of oil on the global economy, the widening gap between the wealthy and the rest of society, international terrorism, and drug trafficking.

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