Hizbul mujahideen

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Hizbul Mujahideen, often written Hizb-ul-Mujahideen, is an Islamist militant group that is actively engaged in operations within the Kashmir region. The objective of this movement is to achieve the political separation of the region of Kashmir from India, with the intention of afterwards integrating it into Pakistan. This particular individual has played a significant role in the transformation of the narrative surrounding the Kashmir war, shifting it from a focus on nationalism to one centered on radical jihad. Hizbul Mujahideen was established in September 1989 with the purpose of serving as an overarching organization for Islamist militants. However, it swiftly fell under the influence and authority of Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir.According to scholarly analysis, Jamaat-e-Islami is commonly regarded as having a military wing. Since its establishment, the organization has received support from Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).The headquarters of the organization is situated in Muzaffarabad, which is in the region of Pakistani-administered Kashmir. Additionally, the organization maintains liaison offices in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, which serve as the political capital and military headquarters of Pakistan, respectively.

Foundation of Hizbul mujahideen

  • The inception of Hizbul Mujahideen may be traced back to 1980, when Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq approached Maulana Abdul Bari, the leader of Jamaat-e-Islami in Azad Kashmir, seeking support in initiating an insurgency in Indian-administered Kashmir.According to Zia, he expressed his ability to reallocate funding and resources from the American-sponsored war in Afghanistan towards a potential struggle in Kashmir.
  • In accordance with the twenty-seventh reference, Bari embarked on a journey to the Kashmir Valley where he engaged in discussions with the prominent figures affiliated with Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir. The negotiations, which lasted for an extended period of three years, eventually culminated in a meeting between Maulana Saaduddin Tarabali, the founding amir of Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir, and Zia ul-Haq in May 1983.
  • Saaduddin aspired to attain comprehensive operational authority over the insurgency, while confining Pakistan’s involvement to the provision of military training and financial backing. Pakistan hesitantly consented, and a formal agreement was reached.Maulana Saaduddin, in his capacity as a leader, made the decision to include his own son as a member of the initial cohort of those volunteering for military training.
  • In August 1989, the Jamaat-e-Islami of Azad Kashmir dispatched a commander named Masood Sarfraz with the objective of consolidating several Islamist factions and establishing a substantial organization that would operate alongside the JKLF.
  • The individual choose to name the new coalition as “Hizbul Mujahideen” (translated as “Party of holy warriors”).During the course of his endeavors, Ansarul Islam, a group facing significant scrutiny from Indian security services, underwent a name alteration, adopting the new identity of “Hizbul Mujahideen”.
  • The two entities functioned concurrently for a brief period of time, but underwent a merger in October of 1989. During the meeting, Muhammad Ahsan Dar was selected as the leader of the combined group. However, it is reported that Hilal Ahmed Mir, also known as Nasirul Islam, from the erstwhile Ansarul Islam, was afterwards elected as its amir.

Early days of Hizbul mujahideen

  • The initial significant action undertaken by the organization is recognized as the targeted killing of Maulvi Farooq Shah, who held the position of Mirwaiz of Kashmir and served as the head of the All Jammu and Kashmir Awami Action Committee.
  • This committee was a coalition composed of various political parties operating in the region of Jammu and Kashmir. The aforementioned event occurred on the 21st of May in the year 1990. The conflicts that occurred resulted in the loss of 21 lives.
  • The group progressively aimed to exert more influence over the socio-economic domain of Kashmir. In June 1990, they urged farmers to refrain from engaging with “Hindu middlemen” in the exportation of their agricultural goods, with the intention of severing the connection between the affluent local class and their counterparts in the Indian state.
  • On October 27, 1990, the organization passed a resolution endorsing the amalgamation of Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan.
  • By February 1991, the company saw expansion and established units within the Jammu province.Field intelligence units were established in several locations as well [53].
  • The inception of the Supreme Advisory Council, accompanied by the subsequent formation of a student wing, occurred during the spring of 1991.The latter, however, underwent a complete transformation into an independent organization in June 1991, with Nasir-ul-Islam assuming command, following its involvement in the abduction of a prominent government official.The user’s text does not contain any information to be rewritten academically.
  • Following a merger in 1991 with Tehreek-e-Jihad-e-Islami (TJI), an organization supported by Jamaat, Hizb-ul-Mujahideen experienced a substantial increase in its military capabilities, resulting in a total strength of approximately 10,000 combatants.
  • By the conclusion of March 1991, Hizbul Mujahideen sent a demand to the local government, requesting the provision of a comprehensive roster containing all permanent residence credentials, alongside a stipulation that all individuals lacking such documentation vacate the state within a period of one month.

Objectives of Hizbul mujahideen


1. Establishment of Islamic State: Hizbul Mujahideen aims to establish an Islamic state in the region of Jammu and Kashmir. This Islamic state would be governed by Islamic law, as envisioned by the group.

2. Secession from India: The group seeks the secession of Jammu and Kashmir from India. Hizbul Mujahideen advocates for the region’s independence or its merger with Pakistan, viewing both options as steps towards realizing their goal of an Islamic state.

3. Armed Struggle: Hizbul Mujahideen believes in achieving its objectives through armed struggle and insurgency. The group has been involved in various acts of violence, including attacks on Indian security forces and civilian targets.

 4. End to Indian Rule: Hizbul Mujahideen is committed to ending what it perceives as Indian occupation of Jammu and Kashmir. The group opposes Indian governance and seeks to replace it with its envisioned Islamic state.

5. Religious Motivation: The group is driven by a religious ideology, emphasizing the importance of Islam in the political and social life of the region. Hizbul Mujahideen sees its struggle as a holy war (jihad) aimed at achieving these religious and political goals.

6. Recruitment and Mobilization: Hizbul Mujahideen actively recruits local militants from the Kashmir Valley, primarily young men, to join its ranks. The group uses a combination of ideological appeal, social networks, and sometimes coercion to enlist new members.

7. Propaganda and Messaging: Hizbul Mujahideen disseminates propaganda materials, including videos and statements, to promote its objectives and gain support among the local population. This includes portraying its fighters as freedom fighters and defenders of Islam.

8. Relationship with Pakistan: The group has had historical ties with Pakistan’s intelligence agencies, which have provided support, training, and shelter to its members. These connections have led to accusations from India of external involvement in the Kashmir conflict.

9. Ceasefire Declarations: At times, Hizbul Mujahideen has declared unilateral ceasefires or periods of reduced violence. These declarations have usually been short-lived and, in some cases, have been influenced by external factors or negotiations.

10. Impact on the Kashmir Conflict: Hizbul Mujahideen’s activities have contributed to the ongoing instability and violence in Jammu and Kashmir. The group’s objectives and tactics have played a significant role in the complex and protracted nature of the Kashmir conflict.

Major attacks by Hizbul mujahideen

1. 2016 Uri Attack: In September 2016, militants believed to be associated with Hizbul Mujahideen, along with other militant groups, attacked an Indian Army base in Uri, near the Line of Control (LoC). The attack resulted in the deaths of 19 Indian soldiers, making it one of the deadliest attacks in the region in recent years.

2. 2000 Amarnath Yatra Attack: In August 2000, Hizbul Mujahideen militants targeted a group of Hindu pilgrims during the annual Amarnath Yatra in Jammu and Kashmir. The attack resulted in the deaths of more than 30 people, including pilgrims and security personnel.

3. 2005 Pahalgam Attack: In June 2005, the group was responsible for a major attack in the Pahalgam region of Jammu and Kashmir. A terrorist attack on a tourist bus resulted in the deaths of several civilians and injuries to many others.

4. 2017 Amarnath Yatra Attack: In July 2017, Hizbul Mujahideen was suspected of involvement in an attack on a bus carrying Amarnath Yatra pilgrims. Eight pilgrims were killed, and several others were injured in the attack.

5. Various Security Force Attacks: Hizbul Mujahideen has been responsible for numerous attacks on Indian security forces, including ambushes, grenade attacks, and targeted killings of security personnel. These attacks have occurred throughout the years as part of the group’s insurgency.

6. 2001 Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly Attack: In October 2001, militants believed to have links with Hizbul Mujahideen attacked the Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly in Srinagar. The attack resulted in several deaths and significant damage to the assembly building.

7. 2006 Doda Massacre: Hizbul Mujahideen was suspected of involvement in a gruesome massacre in the Doda district of Jammu and Kashmir in April 2006. Militants attacked a village, resulting in the deaths of several civilians, including women and children.

8. 2013 Hyderabad Blasts: While Hizbul Mujahideen primarily operates in Jammu and Kashmir, it has been linked to attacks in other parts of India. In February 2013, a series of bomb blasts occurred in Hyderabad, and the group was among those suspected of involvement.

Decline

  • Since the mid-2010s, the organization has seen a series of financial setbacks, resulting in significant decline by the year 2023, leaving it a mere shadow of its previous robust state.
  • The decline of the organization commenced with the assassination of one of its most influential commanders, Burhan Wani.
  • On the 8th of July, 2016, he, along with two other militants, was neutralized by it . The demise of Wani triggered extensive demonstrations in the Kashmir valley, leading to a prolonged period of instability and social upheaval lasting around six months.
  • A total of 96 individuals perished in the incident Additionally, the number of injured citizens exceeded 15,000, while the count of security officers who sustained injuries above 4,000.
  • The posthumous violence was characterized as the most severe disturbance in the area since the 2010 Kashmir unrest. As a response, officials imposed a series of 53 straight days of curfews in Kashmir.
  • Following the aforementioned incident in 2016, the collective had significant casualties, resulting in the demise of over 200 combatants throughout the subsequent six-year period.
  • Sabzar Bhat, a trusted associate of Wani and a member of a faction within the organization known as Wani’s lads, assumed leadership following Wani’s departure.The efficacy of Bhat in utilizing social media platforms to engage and recruit young individuals towards militant activities was acknowledged by Indian security agencies.
  • Sabzar was a trusted associate of Burhan, serving as a member of a faction within the Hizbul Mujahideen known as “Wani’s boys.” The group, consisting of eleven individuals, gained significant recognition in June 2015 after their photos went viral. In a departure from their previous practices of concealing their identities and maintaining a low profile, they brazenly stood sans masks in front of the camera and shared the images online. The photograph had gained significant popularity among the younger demographic.
  • Bhat met his demise in the month of May in the year 2017.The demise of the individual in question incited confrontations and led to the implementation of a curfew by the police. It was during this period that a young person lost their life in altercations with the Central Reserve Police Force.
  • In an effort to restore tranquility in the region, the provision of internet and telephone services in Kashmir was temporarily halted.
  • According to a recent report, a hitherto unidentified insurgent organization called Mujahideen Taliban-e-Kashmir has asserted that it furnished security agencies with intelligence regarding Bhat. The assertion remains unsubstantiated, albeit several analysts have posited that it signifies an increasing division among different militant factions in Kashmir.
  • They propose that members of Hizbul Mujahideen are apprehensive that Zakir Musa may have acted disloyally against Bhat.
  • Over the course of the subsequent three-year period, the entirety of this particular gang was eradicated through a series of operations conducted by Indian security forces.
  • The third individual within the organization to be eliminated was Riyaz Naikoo, who held the position of chief operations commander. The individual in question met his demise on the 6th of May, 2020. He held the position of the organization’s field commander for the longest duration.
  • Gazi Haider, also known as Saifullah and Saif-ul-Islam Mir, assumed the position of chief operations commander on May 10, 2020. The individual in question previously held the position of district commander for Hizbul Mujahideen in the Pulwama region.
  • Subsequently, on the 19th of May 2020, Junaid Sehrai, who held a position of authority within the aforementioned group, met his demise at the hands of Indian security personnel. Junaid Sehrai happened to be the son of Ashraf Sehrai.The user’s text does not contain any information to rewrite.References 120 and 121 were mentioned.
  • On November 1, 2020, Ghazi Haider met his demise during a military operation conducted by Indian security forces in Srinagar. This event resulted in the elimination of key commanders affiliated with Hizbul Mujahideen. Following his demise, the organization has encountered a decline in its operational capacity, resulting in a diminished relevance and effectiveness.
  • On the date of 20 February 2023, Bashir Ahmad Peer was fatally shot in an incident that occurred outside a commercial establishment in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The perpetrators of this act were two individuals who were riding a motorcycle at the time of the incident.
  • Peer was a co-founder of Hizbul Mujahideen and held the position of second-in-command inside the group, subordinate only to Syed Salahuddin. In October 2022, India branded him as a terrorist as well. The individual in question met his demise at the hands of armed assailants acting on behalf of the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW).

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