Lashkar – e – taiba

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Lashkar-e-Taiba, alternatively written Lashkar-e-Tayyiba or Lashkar-e-Toiba, is an Islamist militant group that originated in Pakistan during the late 1980s. It emerged as the militant arm of Markaz-ud-Dawa-wal-Irshad, an Islamist organization that draws influence from the Wahhābī sect of Sunni Islam. The primary objective of this endeavor was to establish dominion of the Muslim faith across the entirety of the Indian subcontinent. Lashkar-e-Taiba, originating from Pakistan, initially conducted its operations within the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, situated along the border between Pakistan and India. However, during the early 2000s, the organization extended its influence deeper into Indian territory. The region of Jammu and Kashmir has been subject to competing claims by India, a predominantly Hindu nation, and Pakistan, a predominantly Muslim one. This territorial conflict has resulted in the emergence of numerous armed factions inside the Jammu and Kashmir region.

Leaders of Lashkar – e – taiba

  • Hafiz Muhammad Saeed is the individual credited with establishing Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and serving as the leader of its political faction, Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD).Following the 2008 Mumbai attacks, Saeed refuted any associations between the two organizations, asserting that there were no members of Lashkar-e-Taiba within Jamaat-ud-Dawa and that he had never had a leadership position in Lashkar-e-Taiba. On June 25, 2014, the United States officially designated Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD) as an affiliate organization of Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).
  • Abdul Rehman Makki, a resident of Pakistan, holds the position of deputy leader inside the organization known as LeT. He is the sibling of Hafiz Muhammad Saeed’s spouse.The United States has issued a monetary incentive of $2 million as a reward, with the aim of obtaining information that would facilitate the identification and subsequent finding of Makki.
  • Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi, who had been detained by the Pakistani military, has been granted bail.The individual in question, identified as a senior member of the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) organization, holds a significant position inside the group. He was identified as one of the key orchestrators of the 2008 Mumbai attacks. On December 18, 2014, the anti-terrorism court in Pakistan granted release to Lakhvi, following the Peshawar school attack, upon the provision of surety bonds amounting to Rs. 500,000.
  • Yusuf Muzammil, a prominent member of the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) organization, has been identified by Ajmal Kasab, the sole surviving gunman of the 2008 Mumbai attacks, as a key orchestrator of the aforementioned terrorist incident.
  • Zarrar Shah, who is currently detained by Pakistani authorities, serves as a key intermediary between the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in Pakistan. According to a statement made by a United States official, he played a significant role in the strategic development of the 2008 Mumbai attacks.According to Pakistani investigators, Zarrar Shah has made claims regarding his involvement in the strikes.
  • Muhammad Ashraf is identified as the chief finance officer of Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT). Despite lacking a clear connection to the Mumbai conspiracy, subsequent to the attacks, he was included in the United Nations roster of individuals involved in the sponsorship of terrorism. According to a report by Geo TV, it was stated that Ashraf had experienced a severe illness during his time in detention six years prior, ultimately resulting in his demise at Civil Hospital on 11 June 2002.
  • Mahmoud Mohamed Ahmed Bahaziq is recognized as a prominent figure inside the organization known as LeT (Lashkar-e-Taiba) in Saudi Arabia, where he has a leadership position and contributes to its financial operations. Despite lacking a direct connection to the Mumbai plot, subsequent to the attacks, he was included in the United Nations’ roster of individuals who provide support to acts of terrorism.
  • Nasr Javed, a top operative from Kashmir, has been included in the United Kingdom’s list of individuals prohibited from entering the country due to engaging in undesirable conduct characterized by efforts to incite, rationalize, or exalt terrorist violence in support of specific ideologies.

Early activities

  • The initial infiltration of Jammu and Kashmir by Lashkar-e-Taiba occurred in 1993. During the latter part of the 1990s, there were claims made regarding the receipt of financial support by Lashkar-e-Taiba from Pakistani government entities.
  • However, it is important to note that the government vehemently refuted these allegations. The gang initiated its operations in the Jammu region, characterized by a significant population of individuals adhering to non-Muslim faiths. In collaboration with Hizb-ul-Mujahideen, Lashkar-e-Taiba initiated a series of targeted assaults on individuals belonging to the Hindu and Sikh communities.
  • The attacks carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba frequently targeted non-combatant individuals. Commencing in 1999, Lashkar-e-Taiba initiated a sequence of suicide strikes directed at Indian security forces, frequently focusing on ostensibly fortified headquarters.
  • During these incidents, the Lashkar-e-Taiba forces found themselves in a situation where they were overpowered and ultimately met their demise. However, prior to their defeat, they managed to inflict casualties on Indian troops and inflict significant destruction.
  • In the year 2000, Lashkar-e-Taiba experienced a rift with Hizb-ul-Mujahideen, an organization that had previously announced a temporary cessation of hostilities with India. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks in 2001, the group experienced a decline in its alliance network as a consequence of the United States-led military intervention that resulted in the ouster of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
  • On December 13 of that particular year, Lashkar-e-Taiba executed a suicide attack on the parliament complex of India located in the capital city of New Delhi, in collaboration with Jaish-e-Mohammed, an additional militant organization. As a reaction, the United States government enacted a measure to freeze the assets of Lashkar-e-Taiba and officially designated it as a terrorist organization.
  • In response to external pressures exerted by the United States, urging Pakistan to take decisive action against militant factions and to prevent a potential conflict with India, the Pakistani government implemented a ban on the aforementioned group in January 2002. Additionally, the leader of said organisation, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, was apprehended, albeit temporarily, since he was subsequently released within a few months. The individual in question founded a philanthropic entity referred to as Jamaat ud-Dawa, which garnered significant perception as a facade for Lashkar-e-Taiba.

Objectives of Lashkar – e- taiba

1. Kashmir Issue: LeT’s primary objective is to wage a jihad (holy war) against Indian forces in the region of Jammu and Kashmir, with the aim of establishing Islamic rule there. They see the Kashmir conflict as a religious and political struggle.

2. Islamization: LeT seeks to establish a strict interpretation of Islamic law, known as Sharia, not only in Kashmir but also in other parts of India and beyond. They view this as a step towards the broader goal of creating an Islamic caliphate.

3. Anti-India Agenda: LeT is hostile towards India and seeks to undermine its territorial integrity. They have been responsible for numerous terrorist attacks in India, including the 2008 Mumbai attacks.

4. Global Jihad: While their primary focus is on the Kashmir conflict, LeT has expressed solidarity with other jihadist groups and has been linked to various international terrorist networks. They aim to contribute to the broader global jihadist movement.

5. Recruitment and Training: LeT is known for recruiting and training militants, often from Pakistan and other countries, to carry out its objectives. They operate training camps and indoctrination programs.

6. Funding and Financing: LeT relies on a network of fundraisers and sympathisers to generate funds for its activities. This includes both domestic and international sources. They have been accused of receiving support from elements within Pakistan’s intelligence agencies.

7. Cross-Border Operations: LeT has been known to carry out cross-border attacks into India, particularly in Jammu and Kashmir. They use the difficult terrain and porous borders in the region to their advantage.

8. Use of Proxy Fighters: LeT is believed to have used proxy fighters and insurgent groups in various conflicts, including Afghanistan. This allows them to maintain a presence and extend their influence in regions beyond Kashmir.

9. Social Services: In some areas where LeT operates, the group has attempted to win local support by providing social services such as education and healthcare. This is used as a tactic to gain sympathy and recruits.

10. Global Designation: Due to their involvement in international terrorism, LeT and its leaders have been designated as terrorists by various countries and organizations, including the United Nations, the United States, and the European Union. This has led to sanctions against the group and its leaders.

11. Connection with Other Groups: LeT has been linked to other militant organizations, such as Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) and Al-Qaeda. These connections sometimes lead to joint operations and cooperation in pursuing common objectives.

Major attacks

  • On December 13, 2001, a significant exchange of gunfire occurred within the premises of the Parliament House building in New Delhi. This incident was ascribed to the militant organization known as LeT (Lashkar-e-Taiba), resulting in the loss of 12 lives and no reported injuries.In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of a specific intervention on the cognitive abilities
  • On May 14, 2002, a group of three operatives affiliated with the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) organization launched an assault on a bus that was en route from an Indian Army post located in Kaluchak. This incident resulted in the tragic loss of 36 lives, with an additional 48 others sustaining injuries.
  • On September 24, 2002, operatives affiliated with the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) organization conducted a raid on the Akshardam Temple located in the Indian state of Gujarat. The assailants employed firearms and hand grenades during the attack, resulting in the loss of 33 lives and causing injuries to 70 individuals.
  • On August 25, 2003, the Indian government attributed responsibility for a dual vehicular bombing incident in Mumbai, resulting in the loss of 52 lives and causing injuries to approximately 150 individuals, to the militant organization known as Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT).
  • On October 29, 2005, it was determined that the organization known as LeT (Lashkar-e-Taiba) was accountable for orchestrating a series of three synchronized bombs in various markets within the city of New Delhi, as well as on a public bus. The aforementioned incident in 2005 stands as the most fatal act of terrorism in India, resulting in the loss of 63 lives and leaving 200 individuals injured.
  • On July 11, 2006, a series of seven synchronized explosive devices, namely pressure cooker bombs, were triggered on the commuter trains of Mumbai, resulting in a significant loss of life with 180 individuals losing their lives and 800 others sustaining injuries.
  • On November 26, 2008, a group of ten assailants executed a meticulously planned assault involving gunfire and explosive devices targeting various locations in Mumbai, including a railway station, a well-frequented eatery, a medical facility, two lodging establishments, and a Jewish Center. The incident endured for a duration of 60 hours and acquired the designation “26/11,” resulting in a total of 164 fatalities and 308 individuals sustaining injuries.
  • On February 13, 2010, it was postulated by Indian officials that Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) maybe played a role in conducting surveillance and formulating plans for the detonation of a German bakery in Pune, resulting in the loss of nine lives.
  • On February 21, 2013, the terrorist organization known as LeT asserted accountability for an explosive device that was detonated within a gathering of individuals in Hyderabad city, India. This unfortunate incident resulted in the loss of 16 lives and left over 100 individuals injured.
  • On December 14, 2014, a group of around 2,000 attackers, suspected to be composed of individuals affiliated with the Taliban, Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), and Lashkar-e-Taiba, launched an assault on security outposts located in Kunar province, Afghanistan. This attack resulted in the loss of 18 lives and left 22 individuals injured.
  • On September 18, 2016, Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) asserted accountability for perpetrating an assault on a military headquarters situated in Uri, Jammu, and Kashmir, India. The attack resulted in the loss of 24 lives and left 17 individuals injured.

Funding

  • During the early 1990s, the government of Pakistan initiated financial support for the LeT, which witnessed a significant growth in funding by around 1995. During this period, the armed forces and the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) collaborated in the establishment of the military framework of the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), with a deliberate objective of leveraging this militant organization against Indian interests. The Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) also acquired financial resources through the initiatives undertaken by the Department of Finance at the MDI.
  • Prior to 2002, the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) acquired financial resources through public fundraising activities, notably employing donation boxes placed in retail establishments. The group additionally acquired funds from donations made in MDI offices, as well as through personal contributions gathered during public commemorations of an operative’s martyrdom, and via its official website.
  • The Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) additionally acquired financial contributions from the Pakistani diaspora residing in the Persian Gulf and United Kingdom, as well as Islamic Non-Governmental Organizations, and businessmen of Pakistani and Kashmiri origin. Operatives affiliated with the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) have also been detained within the borders of India, where they were found to be acquiring financial resources from specific segments of the Muslim community.
  • While a considerable fraction of the monies collected were allocated towards lawful purposes such as the establishment of factories and support for various companies, a noteworthy proportion was specifically allocated for military endeavors. Based on intelligence reports from the United States, it was determined that the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) possessed a military budget exceeding $5 million as of 2009.

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